Archive for the Adnyamathanha Yura Culture Category

Part 1: The Australian Aboriginal Mother Earth Theory and Belief Questioned and Debunked

Posted in Aboriginal, Adnyamathanha Yura Culture, culture, Dreaming, Dreamtime, mudha, My Beliefs, My Writings, Uncategorized with tags , , , , on August 14, 2009 by marvynmc
This may be prove to be a wee bit controversial…but nevertheless he goes…

I personally believe that the often accepted Australian Aboriginal Mother Earth Theory, Concept and Belief is an introduced or borrowed doctrine and belief from other Peoples of the World and has no foundation or basis within our Ancient Australian Aboriginal Culture and Peoples.

What do you think?

Mother Earth
Theory & Belief
Who among us has not heard of this following often quoted saying and belief which is usually attributed to an Aboriginal person having once said it:
“We don’t own the land, the land owns us.

The Land is my mother, my mother is the land.

Land is the starting point to where it all began.

It is like picking up a piece of dirt and saying this is where I started and this is where I will go.

The land is our food, our culture, our spirit and identity.

We don’t have boundaries like fences, as farmers do. We have spiritual connections.

To Indigenous people land is not just something that they can own or trade. Land has a spiritual value.”

I have a lot of issues and concerns about some of the above statements and I personally no longer believe some of them to be true beliefs and statements from both an Adnyamathanha Ararru Mathari Yura Mudha (laws, customs, traditions etc) and Ngarrindjeri Aboriginal Cultural Perspective, Belief and Ancient Traditions.

For the purpose of this note I will mainly address my concerns and issues about The Land is My Mother, My Mother is the Land statement from an Adnyamathanha Yura cultural perspective, and will address some of the others in later notes

If any of my Ngarrindjeri Family Members know of any such Ngarrindjeri story or belief that we Ngarrindjeri believe the land is our mother, then please enlighten me.

The simple question I got is this:

“Who said this?”

Because for the life of me I cannot find or identify who actually said these often quoted words and beliefs.

Did an Australian Aboriginal truly say these words and believe that the Earth is Our Mother or was it said or even, as per usual, misunderstood and mistranslated by whitefellas?

Do some of my fellow Australian Aboriginal people actually believe in the Mother Earth Theory and Belief or is it something that has been introduced into our Peoples Cultural Collective Consciousness by some outsiders, that is whitefellas?

I really do believe that the land is our mother belief is actually an introduced or borrowed belief and concept from outside of Australia because many other People in the World had/have this belief in their cultures, but I personally believe we Australian Aboriginal Peoples had no such belief or concept that the land is our mother.

But I am to first to say, that I will freely stand up to be publicly rebuked and corrected if some of my Fellow Australian Aboriginals do actually believe in this belief and concept that the land is indeed their mother

If some of our fellow Australian Aboriginals do indeed have this Ancient Belief within their Culture can you then help me by identifying which Aboriginal Language Group they are?

Do any of you know? If so, then please enlighten me by letting me know or sending such information and answers to me?

The reasons why I must question and even debunk the ‘Land is Our Mother’ Theory and Belief are as follows:

Adnyamathanha Ararru Mathari Yura Mudha Aboriginal Cultural Perspective, Belief and Ancient Traditions

No where in our Ancient Adnyamathanha Ararru Mathari Yura Mudha can I find any proof or foundation for the theory and belief that the Land is Our Mother.

We have no such word, cultural concept or belief that the land is our mother in our Yura Ngawarla Language.

The Yura Ngawarla Word we have for Mother is Ngami meaning ‘Mother’s Breast’.

The Yura Ngawarla Word we have for Earth is Yurra meaning ‘dirt, earth’.

I have recently noted in a newer 2000 Adnyamathanha Yura Ngawarla Dictionary that the Ancient word Yarta is now being translated as the only word meaning ‘dirt, Earth’ and that the much more ancient word of Yurra is no longer even listed or mentioned now.

The Ancient Yura Ngawarla word Yurra is listed and mentioned in the Yura Ngawarla Dictionary that was done by John McIntee and Aunty Pearl McKenzie (nee Wilton) in 1992, which they had started compiling at least twenty years earlier in the 1970’s, a time when many of our Elder Lawmen and Women were still living then, and some who even helped and advised them.

Yarta is translated as meaning ‘country, place, ground, land, dirt’ and now also being translated as ‘earth’.

I have also noted that the word Yura is still being translated as meaning Aboriginal Man/people whereas, and I suppose this may well now be just my own individual personal translation and belief, I often translate the word Yura as meaning ‘of the earth, People’.

There is also a Yura Ngawarla word Yarta Naku- which means ‘to be born’.

The reason why I translate Yura as meaning ‘of the Earth’ and not man is that Yura Ngawarla word for man is ‘Miru’, but this Ancient word for man is hardly ever used now days, and in it’s place the word Yura has now become the more common place and accepted Yura Ngawarla word that now means Aboriginal Man/people.

But I am becoming sidetracked again…so back to the topic and issue at hand, but in a way still relevant to what I have said about the word Yurra and Yura….

Now if we Adnyamathanha Yura believed that the land is our mother then you would think we would have at least a word in our Yura Ngawarla language for it, dont you?

Well truth be told we have no such word, concept or belief in our Adnyamathanha Yura Mudha nor do we have any such story or belief in our Ancient Nguthuna (the Creation Period Time of our ancestral Spirit Beings, Whitefella English words I hate: dreaming, dreamtime)

Hmmm…do not want to become sidetracked again but this is interesting to note and very relevent to our future Adnyamathanha Yura Culture and Descendents.

I have noted that the in the 2000 Adnyamathanha Yurra Dictionary that this Yura Ngawarla word Nguthuna is now also being defined as meaning ‘God’, thus the introduced religion of Christianity is also beginning to affect even how we translate some of our Ancient words now days.

Language (and Culture) is a funny thing because it is actually a living breathing entity for we people speak it – words are added, words are discarded, outside influences creep in or translated in a different ways and meanings than previous earlier translations

Back to the issue at hand….

We have no such word or concept that the land is our mother in our Ancient Yura Nguthuna stories, teachings or traditions.

In the past six years in researching our Adnyamathanha Yura stories, culture and beliefs at no time have I heard or comes across any such Nguthuna story or belief that either clearly states or alludes to that the land is our mother.

If any of my Adnyamathanha Ararru Mathari Yura Ngankini know of one then please let me know?

Now I want to address this statement: Land is the starting point to where it all began

Do we Adnyamathanha Yura believe that the land is the starting point to where it all began?

No we do not believe in this, well at least I don’t. Why not?

Adnyamathanha Ararru Mathari Yura believe that the starting point and end point of our life is as follows:

We Adnyamathanha Yura believe our Life Cycle is Spiritual – Physical – Spiritual.

We Adnyamathanha Yura peoples of the Northern Flinders Ranges have a very strong connection to the heavenly bodies above us as our life cycle is Spiritual – Physical – Spiritual…and out the end of our life we return to our heavenly abode which we call Wikurtanha.

Wikurtanha (Adnyamathanha Yura ancient concept of Heaven) and Muri – our first Spiritual Existence

Our Spiritual existence begins in Wikurtanha, our ancient concept of heaven, where we are created by our two spiritual Ngami (Mothers) known as the Maudlangami. The two Maudlangami are the source of all life and like us they are Ararru and Mathari and they each produce us as spirit children of their own moeity and kinship totems, and in this spiritual existence we are called Muri.

As Muri we are then told by our Maudlangami to come down to the world beneath to find a suitable Ngami (Mother) to be physically born to. As Muri we are always on the look-out for pleasent faced and kindly Ngami and whilst we are looking for such Ngami we spend our days seeking food from the gum blossoms andat night we fall asleep under the loose bark of tree trunks, and this goes on until we find a suitable Ngami…then we are born physically into the World.

Yarta (land, world) – Our Physical Existence

When we are physically born into the world we then become known as Yura which means ‘of the Earth’ as the word Yura is derived from the word ‘yurra’ which means ‘dirt,earth’.

As we are born physically into the Yarta (Land, world) we are given birth order names to signify our order of birth and we are also given a totem name as well as another additional name that today is often called a nick name, in order to differentiate us from others who may also bear the same birth order names as ourselves.

Our ‘nick names’ may be based on our appearence or a personal characteristic we may show or have, or something we have done or which has happened to us.

Wannapi – our return to our Spiritual Existence

When we die our physical body is placed within a Warlikari (grave) and three days later our Wannapi (Spirit) rises up from the Warlikari and we return to our Spiritual existence and travel back to reside once again in Wikurtanha from whence we first came.

The colour of our Wannapi is white.

Our Wannapi Spiritual journey back to Wikurtanha is via the Vukarnawi (water of the dead) which is the side long view of Wali Vari (lit ‘wriggling creek’; the Milky Way Galaxy) and which flows into Wildu Manta-awi (Wedge-tail Eagle Feet/Claw, Southern Cross).

It is here in Vukarnawi that our Wannapi is captured by the Wildu Mant-awi and our Wannapi is then dipped and cleansed by it in the awi (water) of Vurkanawi in order to wash away any pollution we may have picked up and brought with us from the Yarta (Land. World). Once cleased the Wildu Manta-awi then drags us through to Wikurtanha where we join up with all our Wardumathanha Ngakini (Ancestral Family).

Unlike the heaven of Christianity our Wannapi can travel to and from Wikurtanha so that we may check up on our peoples and descendants every now and then.

Now no where in this life cycle were we ever told that the land is our mother or that the land is the starting point to where it all began.

Well I stop here as a lot of information, as per usual, for you to read and contemplate on, but in closing I again make the statement:

I personally believe that the often accepted Australian Aboriginal Mother Earth Theory, Concept and Belief is an introduced or borrowed doctrine and belief from other Peoples of the World and has no foundation or basis within our Ancient australian Aboriginal Culture and Peoples.

What do you think?

Before there was Ararru & Mathari there was only Ararru

Posted in Aboriginal, Adnyamathanha Yura Culture, Australia, culture, Dreaming, Dreamtime, Education, mudha, My Beliefs, My Writings, South Australia, Uncategorized, Yarta Wandatha with tags , , , , on August 13, 2009 by marvynmc

DISCLAIMER:

Everything I am about to say here is based purely on my own personal research, understanding and interpretation of our Ancient Stories and Beliefs, therefore, I encourage and expect you to always check what I say is true or not, for I may well be wrong and I am always prepared to be rebuked or corrected, I especially ask my Adnyamathanha Ararru Mathari Yura Ngankini to check and verify.

Like I always say that within our Peoples there are People who are both younger and older than me who know much more than I will ever hope to learn in my lifetime.

Mandya and Urdlu Wilpena Pound © 2008 Walha Udi Marvyn McKenzie Snr

In the ancient of days, before there were two opposite moiety totem groups of Ararru Vukurra Milana (Northwind Mob) and Mathari Varpa Milana (Southwind Mob) there was only one – and it was Ararru Vukurra Milana.

Now some of my Mathari Yura Ngankini may well disagree me about this belief and may say “How do you know it was not firstly only Mathari?”

Thus, I beg you to bear with me for a little while as I try to explain this personal and cultural belief.

This one totem wind group can be clearly seen in some of our Ancient stories, our Yarta Wandatha (the telling and teaching of stories that connects a person to our Ancestral Land) of our Ancient Nguthuna.

Nguthuna is the Yura Ngawarla (lit Earth Language) term and name we use for the period when many of our Ancestral Creation Spirit Beings who either travelled over or settled upon the land.

The Nguthuna is known by the Utnyu (corpse, White People) as the ‘Dreamtime or Dreaming’ but these Utnyu terms and concepts are still not sufficient enought to truly explain what we Aboriginal People mean we when talk and recall this Ancient period of time and events.

Each Aboriginal Language Groups have their own Ancient words for this period of time and event: for example the Pitjantjatjara people use the term Tjukurpa, the Arrernte refer to it as Aldjerinya.

Whilst the Yura Ngawarla word Nguthuna is the word for what I often refer to the Ancient of Days, we Adnyamathanha Ararru Mathari Yura also have an additional word we use for the past, present and future events and it is called Mudha (our laws, customs and traditions, kinship and marriage system lanuage, dance, stories, songs etc).

Got sidetracked there a bit but that is because it is important to explain the above cultural information and words not only to Yura but also to other people so they may at least get some knowledge and understanding of these two connected but very different and cultural concepts and belief systems of Nguthuna and Mudha.

So where was I…ahh..yes..This one totem wind group can be clearly seen in some of our Ancient stories, our Yarta Wandatha of our Ancient Nguthuna….

Take for example one of our most well known story, well least by our Mob, the Ancient Nguthuna story of Mandya and Urdlu, which is the main story we have of the creation of the Flinders Ranges. In English the Mandya (sounds like mundja) is called Euro or Common Wallaroo and Urdlu (sounds like Oodloo) is the Red Kangaroo and before they became two different species of animals they were once of the same species.

This same species belief can be seen in their Utnyu scientific Latin names for them. Mandya is called Macropus robustus and Urdlu is called Macropus rufus – thus both are descended from a common ancestor which for the purpose of this story we shall call Macropus.

Wardu (a long time ago),

Mandya and Urdlu Macropus were Brothers, of the same species and both were Ararru, who lived together and hunted together, always sharing with each other what they each found seperately or together. They use to travel around together in the same flat, featureless country looking for their favourite food Ngarndi Wari (the root of the Native Pear, Bush Banana) and sharing the food with each other when either one or the other found some or did not find some.

One day when Urdlu and Mandya were looking for Ngarndi Wari in separate locations Urdlu found a good area where there was a lot of Ngarndi Wari, whilst Mandya was searching in places where he could find only a little, if any at all.

At first Urdlu shared the Ngarndi Wari he had found with Mandya but as time went on he felt Mandya was not pulling his own weight in finding his own Ngarndi Wari and therefore not really contributing at all. So Urdlu decided to no longer share the Ngarndi Wari with Mandya anymore and decided to keep his food source a secret from Mandya.

After a while poor Mandya was getting thinner and thinner because he could not find any Ngarndi Wari at all when he went out. Each evening Mandya would look over to his friend Urdlu and notice that he was getting fatter and fatter.

One day, after nearing the point of starvation, Mandya went to Urdlu and asked his friend to give him some Ngarndi Wari as he was very, very hungry. Mandya said ‘Please Vurlka (old man), give me some Mai (non-meat food in general as opposed to Vaarlu – meat in general) as I am very hungry and weak.

Urdlu felt sorry for Mandya and said to him ‘OK! There is some Ngarndi Wari in my bag over there. Help yourself, you can have that.’

Mandya then went to the bag and began to eat the Ngarndi Wari that he found in it. As Mandya was eating the Ngarndi Wari he looked over to Urdlu and said ‘Hmmm! This is really good tasting Ngarndi Wari. Where did you find it? Urdlu with a wave of his said ‘Oh, I found it over there somewhere.’

Urdlu did not want to tell Mandya where his source of Ngarndi Wari was and Mandya realised that his friend Urdlu was keeping his source a secret from him. So Mandya decided that he would try to find the source of the Urdlu’s Ngarndi Wari himself.

That night the two went to sleep dreaming and scheming. Urdlu dreamt of how he could prevent Mandya from finding his secret source of Ngarndi Wari. Mandya dreamt of how he could find Urdlu’s secret source of Ngarndi Wari.

The next morning Urdlu was the first to wake up and like most other mornings he was feeling a bit thirsty so he went to look for some Awi (water) to drink. Mandya was also secretly awake, waiting to see what Urdlu would do and which direction he would go. Mandya realised that Urdlu was not going to his secret source of Ngarndi Wari but was instead searching for Awi as he usually did in the mornings. This then was his best opportunity to find Urdlu secret source of Ngarndi Wari as he knew that Urdlu would be busy looking for Awi.

Mandya began to walk around the campsite looking for Urdlu incoming tracks to the camp and while there were many, Mandya soon found one that was well worn and frequently used.

Mandya soon followed Urdlu tracks, slowly and steadily, as he noted that at times Urdlu tried to disguise or hide his tracks.

Eventually Mandya did indeed find Urdlu’s secret source of Ngarndi Wari.

He begun to dig out a big heap of the Ngarndi Wari and began to eat and feast on them. He stayed there digging and digging without looking up. Back at the campsite, Urdlu returned back from looking for Awi and noticed that Mandya was no longer in the camp. Urdlu then notice the tracks of Mandya has they circled the camp and realised that Mandya has set off to find his secret source of Ngarndi Wari.

When Urdlu arrived at his secret source of Ngarndi Wari he saw that Mandya notice that had dug up a lot of his Ngarndi Wari. Mandya was still so busy digging and eating the Ngarndi Wari that he did not notice the arrival of Urdlu.

Urdlu was very angry at Mandya and said to him ‘Why did you come to my hole and dig up all my Ngarndi Wari? Mandya replied ‘Because I am starving and you were very mean in not sharing this plentiful source of Ngarndi Wari with me.’ Mandya then just went back to digging and eating the Ngarndi Wari.

This made Urdlu very, very angry and next minute he attacked Mandya and they began to have a big fight with each other. During the fight Mandya grabbed Urdlu’s arms and began to pull and stretch them out. He then grabs his fingers and legs also and stretched them out as well, until they go very long.

This made Urdlu very angry so Urdlu pressed Mandya’s fingers and his legs making them short. He then pressed Mandya’s back and chest. Urdlu then thrashed him and they then separated, going in different directions to tend their wounds.

Mandya went off and up to a place called Vadaardlanha (Paralana Hot Springs) and settled down to tend his wounds. Mandya can still been seen sitting there today as he became a mountain peak that we now called Thudupinha (Thudu being an old word for the Mandya).

When Mandya settled down to sleep for the night he noticed an uncomfortable hurt at his hip. Mandya got up and saw that he had a sore that he had missed out on cleaning and that in the sore was a little stone. Mandya took out the little stone and he blew on it. In a flash he saw hills come up from the plains, so he blew on it again and more hills began to rise up from the plains.

Meanwhile, Urdlu had gone off and down to a placed called Varaarta to tend to his wounds and as he travelled he moved the flat plains that contained his Ngarndi Wari with him.

Urdlu was lying at the flat when he looked up and saw all the hills rising up from the plain and moving down towards him. Urdlu said to himself, ‘Hey! What going on here? What is that Vurlka up to now? Why is he making all these hills, if he keeps it up I will have no place to live at all and I will lose all my Ngarndi Wari.

Urdlu then rose up and with a big sweep of his new long tail he pushed the hills back to where they remain today. You can see where this happened at a place called Vardna-wartathinha (Prism Hill) and near by there is a big flat where no grass ever grows and it is called Urdlurunha-vitana (lit translation ‘kangaroo’s flat’) and it is now called Moro Flat.

At this time Urdlu also made Munda (Lake Frome) so that he would have a permanent supply of Awi. He made this fresh water Awi so would no longer needed to waste any time looking for Awi anymore, have more time to look for Ngarndi Wari and to keep an eye on Mandya.

Mandya saw Urdlu make Munda and he was very jealous so one night he went down to Munda when Urdlu was asleep and salted the whole of Munda. This is why today Urdlu can no longer drink from Munda today and explains why Munda is now a permanent salt lake.

After Mandya went back into the newly created hills and Urdlu stayed on the big plain that he moved along with him. Each now live separately from each other and look differently from each other as a result of the big fight. Where once they were brothers and hunted together they now keep to themselves and remain in their own countries that they made for themselves.

Mandya turned himself into a spirit and is now called Thudupinha. You can still see him today sitting up their near Vadaardlanha. Below him the ground is all red because it was here that he had bled and tended his wounds after his big fight with Urdlu. This place is called Mandya Arti (which means ‘Mandya’s Blood’) and is today known as Mount Freeling.

Because Mandya settled in the North he remained Ararru and therefore is a totem animal for all Ararru.

Because Urdlu settled in the South he changed into Mathari and therefore is the totem animal for all Mathari.

Now some of you may say to me:

You have still not explained or answered why you think that there was once only one totem before there was two, and why you believe that it was the Ararru Mob that was the first totem and not the Mathari Mob? Where in this story does this even say this?

Reread the story and answer for yourself the following two simple questions:

When Mandya and Urdlu fought each other, for this was when the division occurred: Who was the first one to be changed through their fighting – Mandya or Urdlu?

Who was the one who first made creative changes to the flat featureless landscape – Mandya or Urdlu?

There are other important lessons and secrets contained within this story and I will reveal some of them on another day as I think I said enough for you to think about and reflect on.

Family Such Is Life Ironies…

Posted in Aboriginal, Adnyamathanha Yura Culture, Australia, culture, Family, My Beliefs, Yura Ngankini with tags , , , , on August 8, 2009 by marvynmc
Most any old man can tell you, most any old man at all,
Who has lived through all sorts of weather, winter and summer and fall,
That riches and fame are shadows that dance on the garden wall.

Family Such Is Life Ironies…

©2009 Walha Udi Marvyn McKenzie Snr

Family within Aboriginal Society or any Society for that matter,
Can be both often be your strenght or weakness,
Depends on how you get along with them,
In selfish pride or meakness.

They can often can lift you up or bring you down,
For they are often a fussy lot of people,
You just never ever know,
They can can either take down to the deepest hole or up high to the highest steeple

What can we do with or without our Family?
Nothing and Everything you may or may not desire,
But it all depends you know on who is your Family,
For they either keep you down or they will take you higher.

Family Such Is Life Ironies…

How the Moon got into the Sky

Posted in Aboriginal, Adnyamathanha Yura Culture, Australia, culture, Dreaming, Dreamtime, Education, mudha, My Beliefs, My Writings, South Australia, Yarta Wandatha with tags , , , , , , , , , , , on August 8, 2009 by marvynmc

How the Moon Got into the Sky

© 2008 Walha Udi Marvyn McKenzie snr

This digital photo art depicts the Adnyamathanha Yura people story of how the Moon got into the sky and how the marriage rule was established whereby nephews could marry their mother brother’s (uncles) wives who were a generation above them but younger than the nephews.

This photo is made up from a number of different photos that I have joined together to tell the story.

In my lifetime I will only be issuing for public sale a limited edition of only ten copies of this digital photo art.

In the Adnyamathanha Yura Ngawarla language the Moon is known as Vira Vurlka and the Sky is called Ngairri.

Wardu Mudha,

Long ago there lived an old man named Vira Vurlka who had two young wives and he was the Ngamarna (Mother’s Brother) of two Yarkarla-apas (Nephews).

Within Adnyamathanha Yura people culture it is the role and responsibility of your Ngamarna to teach their Yarkarla-apas about the Mudha (customs, laws, history) of their people e.g. responsible for teaching them what food they could and couldn’t eat, kinship rules, marriage, discipline etc

Vira Vurlka’s two Yarkarla-apas were getting sick and tired of him telling them what they couldn’t eat especially when it seemed to them that he would always keep all the best food for himself and they began to fall in love with their Ngamarna wives and wanted them for their own wives, so they decided to do something about their Ngamarna once and for all.

One day the five were out hunting along a gum creek looking for Mai (non-meat food, food in general) and Vaarlu (meat in general) and they came to a large gum tree full of witchetty grubs.

The two Yarkarla-apas said to Vira Vurlka,

‘Look Ngamarna, there are lots of witchetty grubs high up in that tree but it is too high and dangerous for us to climb. Can you climb up there and get some for us?’

‘Okay, okay, Yarkarla-apa’, Vira Vurlka said, ‘I will climb up and get them for you both’.

Vira Vurlka then cut some steps into the tree to make it easier for him to climb up. Then when he was up high enough he then began to climb along a high branch, pulling out the witchetty grubs as he went and throwing them down below to his two Yarkarla-apas who began to eat them.

Now then, every time that the Yarkarla-apa sucked the witchetty grubs they drew in a deep breath of air and they would then aim at the gum tree and blow the air out of their mouth up towards it. This blowing of air made the gum tree grow higher and higher into the sky.

Has the two Yarkarla-apas blew the air out of their mouths they made a loud ‘Foo-foo’ sound and Vira Vurlka heard them and looking down towards them he asked,

‘Hey what are you two up to?’

The two Yarkarla-apas replied

‘We doing nothing Ngamarna. We are just sucking out the juice of the witchetty grub. Get us some more because we are still hungry.’

Vira Vurlka shook his head and began to get more of the witchetty grubs for his Yarkarla-apas unaware that his two Yarkarla-apas were blowing the tree higher and higher until the tree touched the sky.

Far below the two Yarkarla-apas cried out,

‘Ngamarna, look, the tree is touching the sky. Why don’t you reach out and grab the sky before you fall.’

Vira Vurlka then looked and saw how high up he was into the sky and he said ‘Nimba Varpardla Warndaku’, that is, ‘Look how high my head is up here.’

Vira Vurlka began to get giddy from being so high up. Vira Vurlka then reached out to touch the sky for support and has he did so his two Yarkarla-apas then pulled the gum tree down until it was quite small, leaving Vira Vurlka hanging way up high with only the sky to support him getting angrier and angrier by the moment.

Vira Vurlka called down to his two Yarkarla-apas to help him get down but they replied,

‘Ngamarna, we will not help you get down instead you must climb up further into the sky and to forever stay up there to shine. Then you must gradually die and become smaller. After that you will be reborn again and complete the cycle of dying again.’

‘Nimba Varpardla Warndaku’ is all that Vira Vurlka said as he angrily climbed up further into the sky.

‘Nimba Varpardla Warndaku’ is now what Vira Vurlka always says when he is reborn as the full moon.

ViraVurlka two Yarkarla-apas then married his two wives who were younger than they.

Re: Queen Victoria’s 1842 South Australia Act & King William IV 1836 Letters Patent

Posted in Aboriginal, Aboriginal Land Rights, Aboriginal Treaty, Adnyamathanha Yura Culture, Australia, culture, Education, My Beliefs, politics, South Australia, Treaty with tags , , , , , , on August 8, 2009 by marvynmc

King William IV Letters Patent Question:

Did the 1842 South Australia Act signed and executed by Queen Victoria extinguish in any shape or form the legal and moral standing of the earlier 1836 King William IV Letters Patent?

Link to Queen Victoria 1842 South Australia Act: http://www.foundingdocs.gov.au/resources/transcripts/sa6_doc_1842.pdf

Link to King William IV Letters Patent: http://www.foundingdocs.gov.au/resources/transcripts/sa2_doc_1836.pdf

In 1836, South Australia is founded as a British Colony Business Enterprise by the South Australian Association. Executive action to establish the Province under the 1834 (South Australia) Foundation Act was taken in February 1836, when King William IV signed the Letters Patent.

This Act and the Letters Patent achieved the founding of the Colony…but the failure of the Wakefield plan meant that a second South Australia Act was required and this was enacted in 1842.

The area of what is now South Australia and the Northern Territory was defined as ‘unoccupied’ or ‘waste lands’ which were ‘supposed to be fit for the purposes of colonisation’ thus overriding any rights of the’ Aboriginal inhabitants.

However…

Within King William IV Letters Patent which basically was his executive Royal decision to establish a South Australian British Colony is the following Clause:

“Provided Always that nothing in those our Letters Patent contained shall affect or be construed to affect the rights of any Aboriginal Natives of the said Province to the actual occupation or enjoyment in their own Persons or in the Persons of their Descendants of any Lands therein now actually occupied or enjoyed by such Natives.”

This Clause within King William IV Letters Patent has never been honoured by any South Australian Government since 1836 to 2009, both legally or morally.

In 1842, because the Business Enterprise proved to be an utter failure a new Act of Parliament, the South Australia Act, was passed and excuted by Queen Victoria.

So Again I must Ask the Question:

Did the 1842 South Australia Act signed and executed by Queen Victoria extinguish in any shape or form the legal and moral standing of the earlier 1836 King William IV Letters Patent?